Community Advocacy on Environmental and Social Justice

Saturday, 31 March 2012

RIO 20 DECLARATION IN 1992


Preamble
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,

Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992,

Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human
Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, and seeking to build
upon it,

With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership
through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key
sectors of societies and people,

Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of
all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and
developmental system,

Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our
home,

Proclaims that:

Principle 1
Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development.
They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with
nature.

Principle 2
States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the
principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own
resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies,
and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their
jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other
States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

Principle 3

The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet
developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.

Principle 4
In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection
shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot
be considered in isolation from it.

Principle 5

All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of
eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable
development, in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living
and better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.

Principle 6
The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the
least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given
special priority.  International actions in the field of environment and
development should also address the interests and needs of all countries.

Principle 7

States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve,
protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem.
In view of the different contributions to global environmental
degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities.  The
developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the
international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures
their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies
and financial resources they command.

Principle 8
To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all
people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of
production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.

Principle 9

States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for
sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through
exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the
development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies,
including new and innovative technologies.

Principle 10

Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all
concerned citizens, at the relevant level.  At the national level, each
individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the
environment that is held by public authorities, including information on
hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the
opportunity to participate in decision-making processes.  States shall
facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making
information widely available.  Effective access to judicial and
administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be
provided.

Principle 11

States shall enact effective environmental legislation.  Environmental
standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the
environmental and developmental context to which they apply.  Standards
applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted
economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing
countries.

Principle 12

States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international
economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable
development in all countries, to better address the problems of
environmental degradation.  Trade policy measures for environmental
purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable
discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.
Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the
jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided.  Environmental
measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems
should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.

Principle 13

States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation
for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage.  States
shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to
develop further international law regarding liability and compensation
for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within
their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction.

Principle 14
States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the
relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances
that cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to
human health.

Principle 15

In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be
widely applied by States according to their capabilities.  Where there
are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific
certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective
measures to prevent environmental degradation.

Principle 16

National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of
environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into
account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the
cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without
distorting international trade and investment.

Principle 17

Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be
undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant
adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a
competent national authority.

Principle 18
States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or
other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on
the environment of those States.  Every effort shall be made by the
international community to help States so afflicted.

Principle 19
States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant
information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a
significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult
with those States at an early stage and in good faith.

Principle 20

Women have a vital role in environmental management and development.
Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable
development.

Principle 21

The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be
mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable
development and ensure a better future for all.

Principle 22
Indigenous people and their communities, and other local communities,
have a vital role in environmental management and development because of
their knowledge and traditional practices.  States should recognize and
duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their
effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development.

Principle 23

The environment and natural resources of people under oppression,
domination and occupation shall be protected.

Principle 24
Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development.  States
shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the
environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further
development, as necessary.

Principle 25
Peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and
indivisible.

Principle 26
States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by
appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

Principle 27

States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of
partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this
Declaration and in the further development of international law in the
field of sustainable development.


-- 
Generously, have a fruitful environmental friendly day.
`````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````

Patrick Kamotho.

Fahamu Pan -African Fellow[FPAF]
African Views-Kenya Chapter.
Interim Co-ordinator East Africa Alliance of Inhabitants.
Member. Bunge La Mwananchi.
Country Convener, Baraza La Taifa Social Movement
C.E.O.   Shields & Spears Co. Ltd

EOTO World: MDG Update: Clean Water Achieved Early!

EOTO World: MDG Update: Clean Water Achieved Early!

How to Speed Up, Clean Up, and Revive Your Windows PC


Flowers are blooming and birds are chirping, which means it's time to start your yearly spring cleaning extravaganza. While you're emptying your closets, decluttering, and getting rid of the bloat in your life, why not do the same for your computer? Here are some simple, easy to follow tips to give your trusted Windows PC a little spring cleaning of its own.

Clean Up Your Hardware

We'll start with the outside of your machine, since you probably have all those cleaning products out for your household cleaning anyway (right? right?). Turn it off, unplug everything, and find an open area where you can easily reach everything. Whether you have a laptop or a desktop, your main priority is probably going to be the keyboard and mouse or trackpad. Luckily, you canclean them pretty easily with just a few household objects. If they're looking a little greasy, you can always clean them up with a Mr. Clean magic eraser, too.
You'll also want to get inside your computer's case and clean any dust out of the fans to keep everything running cool and quiet. We've shown you how to do this on a desktop before, and all you need is a little compressed air to do a pretty thorough job. Laptops, unfortunately, usually require a lot more work. You'll have to refer to your computer's instruction manual for more information on how to take it apart.

Tame Your Cable Clutter

As you head back to your desk to replace your newly-cleaned computer, take some time to organize your cables first. We've shared a number of ways to do this, fromsimple cable shortening techniques to full workspace solutions. I can personally vouch for both the rain gutter method and theIKEA Signum cable manager, though you can experiment with your workspace to see what works best. If you're using a laptop,slapping a couple binder clips on your desk is just about the greatest way to save them from falling on the floor whenever you go mobile, too.

Get Up to Date

Alright, so you've plugged your machine back in at your pristine workspace, and now it's time to get down to the good stuff: software. Before you do anything else, head to Windows Update and make sure all your software is up to date—drivers, service packs, security updates, and so on. Unlike our Mac guide, I don't recommend you upgrade to Windows 7 if you aren't already on it. WithWindows 8 on its way for an October release, upgrading to Windows 7 now just seems like a waste of money. If you're on 7, great—you're running the best version of Windows yet—but if you're on XP or Vista, hold off for just a few months. Even though Windows 8's metro interface isn't that great, it contains a number of other improvements (like speed increases) that are worth waiting for.

Uninstall Unnecessary Apps

If you've followed our advice about being conservative with the apps you install, you shouldn't have too many unnecessary ones floating around—but no matter how careful you are, it's bound to happen. Skip Windows' built-in Add/Remove Programs dialog anduse something like Revo Uninstaller for quicker, more thorough uninstallations. This is also a great time to de-crapify your printer or scanner setup, as it undoubtedly contributes a few unnecessary apps to your hard drive.
You might also want to take a look at your startup items in msconfig and uncheck options you don't need. This'll decrease your computer's boot time significantly, not to mention free up a few resources. If you're having trouble deciding what to disable, we highly recommend checking outpreviously mentioned Soluto, which will help guide you through the process.

Reclaim Hard Drive Space

How to Speed Up, Clean Up, and Revive Your Windows PCIf you're starting to run out of space on your drive, it's time to take a really good look at what might be causing it. That means ditching Windows' built-in Disk Cleanup app (which is fine, but probably won't net you a ton of space savings) and check out something like WinDirStat or Disk Space Fan. They'll show you exactly what's taking up so much space on your machine, organized by folder, file type, and more. Armed with that information, you can start deleting stuff you don't need and getting some of that disk space back. For more information, check out our feature on how to analyze, clean out, and free space on your hard drive.

Do Some Maintenance and Optimize Your System

Now it's time to really dig in and start cleaning up the cruft that can slow down your machine. If you don't already have the fantastic CCleaner maintenance tool, download it now and run through its cleaning process. This should clean up some of those extra caches, temporary files, log files, and other things strewn about your system. While you're at it, set it to run on a schedule so you don't have to worry about it ever again.
Apart from that, the only maintenance you need to do (besides the other things mentioned in this post) is keep your antivirus program turned on and up to date. We recommend Microsoft Security Essentials: It's good at killing viruses, and dead simple to use. Most users shouldn't have to do much more than this—Windows 7 users don't need to defragment, clean their registry, mess with Windows prefetching, or do anything else you've been told to do over the years. Check out our guide to Windows maintenance for more info.

Back Up Your Refreshed PC

Lastly, it's time to back up your newly cleaned PC. Hopefully, you had a backup system in place before this whole thing, but if not, we recommend setting up a bulletproof, offsite backup system with CrashPlan. Once you set it up, you never really have to think about it again. Alternatively, you can always just back up to an external drive using the built-in Windows Backup—I personally use this toback up to my NAS—but we'd still recommend backing up your super important files to something like Dropbox, since this won't protect you from things like fires, earthquakes, drive failures, or anything else that could destroy your backup.

Alternative: Do a Clean Install

It's worth mentioning, since it's such a popular option, that some people just prefer to reinstall Windows every once in a while to keep everything running smoothly. This is totally fine—I do it myself, in fact, just because I'm a bit OCD that way—but youreally don't have to. As long as you take care of your computer, it should run just as quickly, smoothly, and cleanly as a freshly minted installation.
If you do want to do a clean install, then I highly recommend checking out how to customize your Windows installation with RT Se7en Lite and create the OS of your dreams. You can remove unnecessary Windows components, add Service Pack 1 to your installer, and even automatically install all your favorite apps in one fell swoop (though you could always use something like Ninite, too). As you go through the process, be sure to check out our Lifehacker Pack for Windows to make sure you get all the essential apps installed on your new machine.

That's all there is to it. Windows doesn't need quite as much maintenance as it did in the old days, but there will always be a few things you can do from time to time to keep it clean and fast. Have any spring cleaning tips we left out? Share them with us in the comments.
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DISCUSSION THREADS

If you are daring, you can install the Windows 8 Consumer Preview. I did it this weekend, and its a bit faster than windows 7. Unfortunately learning the new interface is frustrating, but so far its been worth it.
Edited by parabellum2000 at 03/28/12 1:29 PM
promoted by Whitson Gordon

AND, you'll be forced to do another clean install once the Consumer Preview expires. which is a bummer.

Learn the new Windows-Key short-cuts to help eliminate some of the frustration... and when you mouse down to the lower left corner, right-click to find some of your missing "Start Menu" links (like, easily get to control panel). There are TONS of cool short-cuts, but the problem with Windows 8 in general, is that they aren't very "discoverable".... you have to read about them or be told about them to know.

Or dual boot like a sane person. I'm not giving up my tried and true OS for a consumer preview. Windows 8 has turned out the be pretty stable, but that's not always the case.

Everything essential is backed up. It only takes about 5min to restore windows image to an SSD :)


I'm trying. You hit the nail on the head, if windows ever expects this to replace 7, every major feature should be intuitive. No one should need to hunt to shut down their computer. The app store should have a obvious search feature.
Its been dead stable and fast for me. Occasionally I see a lag opening a program that would have been instant on Windows 7.
I can't wait to see how 8 progresses.


I need an SSD so badly...


It is hard to get used to the universal charms... the search function there seraches whatever application you're in. Charms are like "the universal menu bar", whereas the right-click (touch: drag in from top or bottom edge) brings up app-specific menu options.
And people used to complain about "shutdown" being under "start"... now that it's under settings, people wish it were under "Start"! People will get used to it. Just remember that for most new Win8 tablets, shutdown will be a hard-button, just like on phones and iPads... same with "home" (or "start"). So a lot of these problems that appear on existing desktops simply won't exist on new Win8-optimized hardware.


The Dev Preview was amazing, and everything I needed to work, worked. Flawlessly.

Except... That Win8 is a desktop operating system as well as a tablet operating system. So a LARGE proportion of devices using it will not have that hard button for shutdown. But that's neither here nor there. :)

Yeah, but it's still there in settings, power options. It's, like, ONE additional click over Start-Shutdown. It's SO not a big deal to me. And it's JUST as "intuitive"... in both cases, you have to be TOLD where to look.

Oh, absolutely, I completely agree. I shut down my windows PC maybe once every 2 weeks, if that, so I don't really care WHERE they put it as long as it's not buried 15 menus deep. But saying that there's a hardware button on tablets isn't really an answer to people who are complaining about it in general :