Community Advocacy on Environmental and Social Justice

Sunday, 2 March 2014

A New Kind of Warfare:Global Economic Hegemony:



By Kaleem Hussain
(LLB, LLM- in International Economic Law from Warwick University, UK)

 An Interview with Dr Krassimir Petrov,Ph.D (Teaches Macroeconomics, International Finance & Econometrics at the American University in Bulgaria).

Afghanistan, Iraq and now Iran and potentially Syria on the cards for a military intervention, I was intrigued to find out what exactly is driving the neo-conservatives in the echelons of power at the Whitehouse and the few coalition allies to the U.S. to continue their strategy of potential military strikes despite what is universally accepted has been a disastrous foreign policy in Iraq.


I interviewed Dr. Krassimir Petrov who has recently wrote an article titled “The Proposed Iranian Oil Bourse” to enlighten me on this subject. The interview focused on two articles, namely the one cited above and by W.R. Clark titled “Petrodollar Warfare: Dollars, Euros & The Upcoming Iranian Oil Bourse.” The response is a combination of statements from the articles and Dr. Krassimir Petrov’s own opinions on the questions asked.

The questions were framed as a result of what the authors have highlighted is the setting up of a proposed Iranian Oil Bourse due to become operational from March 2006. The word “bourse” refers to a stock exchange for securities trading, and is derived from the French Stock Exchange in Paris. The Tehran Government has plans to begin competing with New York’s NYMEX and London’s IPE using a Euro based international oil trading mechanism. You may ask, why is this of any significance?

Well, in the year 2000, Iraq had decided that it was no longer going to accept dollars for oil being sold under the UN’s Oil For-Food Program and decided to switch to the Euro as Iraq’s oil export currency. The result was a military strike by the U.S. and it’s allies and subsequently in ample time the dollar was restored as Iraq’s oil export currency.

The authors feel that this was one of the main reasons for attacking Iraq to maintain the U.S. dollar as the monopoly currency for the critical international oil market. What this signifies is that without some sort of U.S. intervention and if the Iranian oil bourse goes ahead, the Euro is going to establish a firm foothold in the international oil trade market. Under the rubric of what is seen as the potential nuclear threat of Iran in future years, W.D. Clark states in his article that given the U.S. debt levels and taking into consideration the neo-conservative project of U.S. global domination, Tehran’s intentions “constitute an obvious encroachment on dollar supremacy in the crucial international oil market.” With international pressure mounting on the Iranian Government, it was under these circumstances that I posed the questions to Dr. Krassimir Petrov.

Q1/ In light of the above articles, are we witnessing a “new kind of warfare,” namely that of “economic warfare”?

Dr. Krassimir Petrov: War always has an economic stance to it. Nations would not go to war if they were not to benefit economically from their pursuits. Hence, why in my article I coined the phrase under economics of empires “a nation state taxes it’s own citizens while an empire taxes other nation sates.” As W.R. Clark succinctly states in his article “there are unspoken macroeconomic drivers underlying the second stage of petrodollar warfare, Iran’s upcoming Oil Bourse.” Dr. K. Petrov suggests that the imperial ability to tax has been at the core for building a stronger economy and consequently a better and stronger military. Economically, the American empire was born with Bretton Woods in 1945.

The U.S. dollar was not fully convertible to gold, but was made convertible to gold only to foreign governments. This established the dollar as the reserve currency of the world. Dr. K Petrov suggested that, historically taxation had always been direct, where the subject state handed over the economic goods directly to the empire, but for the first time in history, during the twentieth century, America was able to tax the world indirectly, through inflation fostering the creation of a new U.S. imperial tax. The guns-and-butter policy of the 1960's was an imperial one: the dollar supply was relentlessly increased to finance Vietnam and LBJ's Great Society.

In August 15, 1971, The U.S. Government had defaulted on its payments when foreigners demanded payment for their dollars in gold. The popular “spin” at the time was that the U.S. was severing the link between the dollar and gold, in reality the denial to pay back in gold was an act of bankruptcy by the U.S. Government in order to foster the aims of what it had declared as its empire. It had extracted an enormous amount of economic goods from the rest of the world, with no intention or ability to return those goods, and the world was powerless to respond- the world was taxed and it could not do anything about it. At that juncture, in order to sustain the American empire and continue to tax the world, the U.S. had to force the rest of the world to hold ever depreciating American dollars in exchange for economic goods. It had to give the rest of the world a viable reason to hold these ever depreciating dollars. The reason it gave was oil.

The answer Dr. K. Petrov gave to the first question was an overwhelming yes based on economic, military and imperialistic goals.

Q2/ The U.S. and Saudi Governments have previously signed a Iron Clad Agreement. If the Euro is successful as a currency for oil exportation, what other nations are likely to benefit in the future and could we witness a disenfranchisement in terms of the relationship the U.S. has with the House of Saud?

Dr. Krassimir Petrov: In 1971, as it became clearer and clearer that the U.S Government would not be able to buy back its dollars in gold, it made in 1972-73 an iron-clad arrangement with Saudi Arabia to support the power of the House of Saud in exchange for accepting only U.S. dollars for its oil. The rest of OPEC was to follow suit and also accept only dollars. Because the world had to buy oil from the Arab oil countries, it had the reason to hold dollars as payment for oil. Because the world needed ever increasing quantities of oil at ever increasing oil prices, the world's demand for dollars could only increase. Even though dollars could no longer be exchanged for gold, they were now exchangeable for oil.

The economic essence of this arrangement was that the dollar was now backed by oil. As long as that was the case, the world had to accumulate increasing amounts of dollars, because they needed those dollars to buy oil. As long as the dollar was the only acceptable payment for oil, its dominance in the world was assured, and the American empire could continue to tax the rest of the world. If, for any reason, the dollar lost its oil backing, the American empire would cease to exist. Thus, imperial survival dictated that oil be sold only for dollars. It also dictated that oil reserves were spread around various sovereign states that weren't strong enough, politically or militarily, to demand payment for oil in something else. If someone demanded a different payment, he had to be convinced, either by political pressure or military means, to change his mind.

Dr. Krassimir Petrov: The U.S Government has supported the Saudi government for many years both economically and militarily. If the Iron Clad Agreement was no longer viable, I am sure that the U.S Government would use all its economic and military power to restore its ascendancy in the region. The other nations that would benefit, would be the likes of China, Russia & the Asian countries. Many countries in the region would cherish the opportunity to curtail the U.S. monopoly in this area. Although many and I included would like to see the day when these oil rich nations disenfranchise themselves from the U.S. and the dollar, the likelihood of it happening in the foreseeable future is very minimal.

Q3/ Do you feel that nuclear proliferation agenda by Iran is being used as an excuse by the U.S. and it's coalition allies to achieve their economic and political goals in the region?

The man that actually did demand Euro for his oil was Saddam Hussein in 2000. At first, his demand was met with ridicule, later with neglect, but as it became clearer that he meant business, political pressure was exerted to change his mind. When other countries, like Iran, wanted payment in other currencies, most notably Euro and Yen, the danger to the dollar was clear and present, and a punitive action was in order. Bush's Shock-and-Awe in Iraq was not about Saddam's nuclear capabilities, about defending human rights, about spreading democracy, or even about seizing oil fields; it was about defending the dollar and the American empire. It was about setting an example that anyone who demanded payment in currencies other than U.S. Dollars would be likewise punished.

Many have criticized Bush for staging the war in Iraq in order to seize Iraqi oil fields. However, those critics can't explain why Bush would want to seize those fields. He could simply print dollars for nothing and use them to get all the oil in the world that he needs. He must have had some other reason to invade Iraq.

Dr. Krassimir Petrov: Dr K. Petrov started by referring to the above extract in his article with reference to what took place with Iraq previously. The notion that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction was in fact a great distortion of the real reason why military intervention was carried out. Dr. K. Petrov then reiterated the statement that history teaches us that an empire goes to war to either (1) defend itself or (2) benefit from war and the Iranian situation is no different. The situation in Iran is that they are 10 years away from potentially having nuclear weapons. Whereas, North Korea is many years ahead of Iran in terms of it’s nuclear agenda and we are not hearing any signals about a potential military reprisal against them. Based on recent evidence in Iraq, the current policy is merely a culmination of what has already passed with future projections of an attack on Syria also on the cards.

Q4/ Why was the Euro as a currency introduced into the global market?

Dr. Krassimir Petrov: The idea of introducing the Euro as a currency into the international financial markets

was given credence in the early 1990’s. The main reason was to establish a currency that could compete with the dollar in the global economy. By having a strong Euro

operating in the oil market will dramatically shift the balance of power as the main oil exporting countries will begin to evaluate their options in this market with the EU and in relation to their balance of payments.

Q5/ What is the realistic probability of the Iranian Bourse operating successfully from March 2006 onwards?
Dr. Krassimir Petrov:

According to the reports I have, there is nothing suggesting at this moment in time that the Iranian Oil Bourse will not become operational from March 2006 onwards.

Q6/ At this stage when pressure is being put on Iran by the UN Security Council and the U.S. Government, what compromise is there on a economic front with references to the Iranian oil bourse & preventing a potential military attack on Iran?

Dr. Krassimir Petrov: The U.S. and it’s international allies do not really wish to engage in a military battle with Iran at this juncture in light of what has happened in Iraq. However, when you suggest a compromise that would be beneficial to the U.S., the only viable compromise would be for the Iranian Oil Bourse not to go ahead. Otherwise, the repercussions as the precedent from Iraq shows is an increasing likelihood of a military reprisal. This is further reiterated in the opening statement of W.D. Clark’s article on “Petrodollar Warfare” where he cited the following passage from a speech made by President G.W. Bush “This notion that the United States is getting ready to attack Iran is simply ridiculous...Having said that, all options are on the table."

The End of Dollar Hegemony: Analysis of Congressman Ron. Paul’s speech before the U.S. House of Representatives.

During the interview, Dr K. Petrov also directed me to a recent speech by Hon. Ron Paul of Texas titled “The End of Dollar Hegemony” before the U.S. House of Representatives to endorse his findings over the years. Congressman Ron Paul gallantly presented his case underlying with relative precision how if the U.S does not change it’s ways in terms of the economic, diplomatic & military policies in certain parts of the world, the end of dollar hegemony could be on the cards as it is replaced by another currency or gold as the leading standard bearer in the global markets. The speech by R. Paul very much continues the legacy and the picture that has been painted by Dr. K. Petrov and W.D. Clark in terms of the policies and strategies that the U.S. has historically used to maintain the dollar as the dominant currency on the world markets. The “bullish” confidence that has formed the benchmark in preserving the dollar boasted well for financing extravagance by conquering foreign lands, which in return meant less strains on domestic labour and productivity as it reaped the benefits not only gold but slaves (cheap labour) all contributing towards the economic and military might of the American empire. These foreign excursions also provided more ample opportunities to tax people & nation states, all assisting in preserving the dominance of the empire. Based on this historical observation, R. Paul states that when the wealth of nations had been sapped and gold no longer could be maintained, the military prowess of the empire subsequently also plummeted. Today, the principles are the same but the process is different. Paper money has replaced gold as the currency of the realm, but the goals remain essentially the same, namely to “compel foreign countries to produce and subsidize the country with military superiority and control over the monetary printing presses.”


The Other side of the Coin

R. Paul suggests that since printing money is nothing short of counterfeiting, military ascendancy is paramount for its successful operation. However, the drawback is that such a policy tramples on the character of the counterfeiting nation depleting the incentive to save and produce, propelling increasing debts and welfare instability.

At the stage when paper money is rejected, or when gold runs out, wealth accumulation and political stability are lost. The term “dollar diplomacy” in the late 19th century was rephrased with “dollar hegemony” during the second half of the 20th century. The Federal Reserve System from 1913-1971, WW II created a simple formula, which was increasing the money supply of dollars and military might equalled a virtual monopoly on global economic trade with the dollar acting as the catalyst in the system. The 1944 Bretton Woods agreement had solidified this dominance making the purchase of dollars holding equal a footing as gold with a purchase power at 1/35th ounce of gold which was illegal for American Citizens to own. As R. Paul mentions, this was a policy that was destined to fail as in the following years the U.S. increased the supply of dollars without gold backing. This unseemly adventure came to an end on Aug 15, 1971, when Nixon closed the gold window.


Preserving the Dollar Hegemony

R. Paul’s article highlights how the U.S. agreement with OPEC to price oil in U.S dollars exclusively for all worldwide transactions gave the dollar a pivotal position in the global currency market as the dollar would now be extricable linked to oil. In exchange, U.S. protection was guaranteed towards the oil rich nations and the dollar gained in relative strength allowing the U.S. to export “monetary inflation” and buy oil and other goods at a discount rate fostering further the quest for dollar hegemony.

However, the key points that R. Paul highlights in the article is that the OPEC arrangement was not as strong and stable as the Bretton Woods arrangement or the gold standard of the late 19th century. This volatility was highlighted when in the 1970’s the dollar nearly collapsed and extortionate interest rates of 21% were required to bring stability back into the system. To this date, central banks and international commercial banks have preserved the strength of the dollar giving it similar footing to that of gold.


Economic Warfare: A New Kind of Warfare?

Congressman R. Paul points out that the artificial demand for the dollar along with the military might places the U.S. in the unique position to the rule the world without hindering its own domestic resources or deficits. This cosy relationship can’t last!

In the past 5 years, the dollar has been devalued in terms of gold by more than fifty percent. The above analysis has shown, that if anyone does challenge the status quo in terms of the link between the dollar and oil e.g. Saddam Hussein (2000), the powers that be will use all economic and military means to remove that challenge (regime change) at whatever costs, including at times illegitimate authorisation as in Iraq. In 2001, Venezuela’s ambassador to Russia spoke of Venezuela switching to the Euro for all their oil sales. This was immediately thwarted with economic pressure from the U.S.. The U.S. foreign policy in recent years has heightened tensions and increased resentment amongst majority Muslim nations around the world. This does not hold well when it comes to U.S. credibility and diplomacy in the international arena. R. Paul states that the $ 2.trillion never ending war must be paid for one way or another. Dollar hegemony provides the vehicle to do just that.

The key is to propel the dollar dependency among states, so that they remain “allies to the fraud” and hence keep the dollars artificial value high. If Iran does go ahead with the planned Iranian Oil Bourse from March 2006, if previous precedents is to go by, she will be subjected to the same economic and military pressures until a regime change has been put firmly in place in the region. As R. Paul highlights, using force to compel people to accept money without real value can only work in the short run.

Economic law is based on fiduciary exchange of goods with real value as opposed to the superficial values system the dollar hegemony project is promoting. It seems that the tide is slowly changing, when we will see the oil rich nations bartering in currencies other than the dollar. Although, the authors of the three main articles in this analyses would cherish seeing that day, the immediate likelihood is that the neo-conservative U.S. global economic dollar hegemonic project will continue using both political and military pressure to foster this global agenda.


http://informationclearinghouse.info/article12346.htm

America the Pitiful : Climate Change

By Charles Sullivan

Calling our form of government a democratic republic does not make it so. We are what we do. By now it should be abundantly clear that most Americans are incapable of recognizing real democracy—because they have never been subjected to one. Perhaps no culture on earth is more materialistic or delusional than ours’. Compared to much of the world, America’s behavior is tragically pathological. We react to planetary warming by driving metal gas guzzling monstrosities, rather than enacting conservation measures. Americans have the habit of doing the opposite of what we should. Our so called leaders think our sensibilities are too delicate to expose us to truth—so reality is omitted from our diet as if it were a plague. Rather than receiving nourishing truth, we are given the opiates of propaganda that affirm and reinforce our odd self destructive behavior. We are held captive by the lies that are deftly woven from the threads of capitalism, and persuaded to act against our own interest, as well as the public good.


Propaganda is like a powerful and paralyzing drug that induces the most bizarre social behavior. In the mind it acts like an opiate that provokes psychotic episodes of self harming conduct. We are a nation addicted to oil and violence; a people grateful for our chains of ignorance and servitude to the gods of consumerism and unrestrained capitalism—the very gods that are our undoing. The drip bags of propaganda are permanently attached to our veins to assure that we never awaken from our news-induced coma. Mind control is more subtle than the open use of coercive force in shaping human behaviors. No one is more effectively enslaved than those who think they are free. Witness the glee with which so many na├»ve and witless conservatives cheer on the neocon cabal in the mistaken belief that their policies do them good. The paradigms of our time, which drive our behaviors, have been deftly marketed to us without our knowledge—subliminal advertising’s finest frenzy. So effective are these media campaigns that few of us even bother to question their authenticity. The result is a virtually comatose culture of consumption and waste that is incapable of defending itself from the predation of wealth and power. Propaganda marginalizes and renders us useless as citizens, by affecting our ability for self examining critical thought. We can no longer add two plus two and get four.

In this land of uncommon grace that is blessed with fabulous wealth, mantras are repeated over and over, without regard to validity, until they become ingrained in the public conscience and assume the authority of truth. They become our cultural paradigms, the bedrock of society, whose moral authority is rarely revisited. Centuries of self deception have led us unerringly to the present moment. Everything that contradicts our version of reality is expunged from the public record. Americans do not like to confront unpleasant realities. Let us not hear about the abuse of captives of war. Rather than take action to correct the gross injustices we routinely heap upon the world, as demanded by conscience, we simply deny their existence. We turn our backs on any reality that assaults our conscience and suppress the evidence. We go on as if there were no consequences. Cause and effect is not something we wish to ponder, so we sweep it under the carpet.

In a world where other cultures respect human rights and cherish some notion of justice, America’s sociopathic behavior is seen as the belligerent obscenity that it is. Our actions on the world stage are justified by fallacy and drip with a hubris that has no basis in truth.

There can be no justice without truth; no peace without justice. If we truly reap what we sow, we are in for some hard times in the years ahead. When our government behaves irresponsibly and with violence toward the world, it is incumbent upon the people to restrain it, to remake that government in the image of the people, rather than the elite. But this is only possible with an aroused and wakeful electorate. Revolution requires an informed and militant citizenry. Awakening is the first step in the long and difficult journey to self liberation. The people will not rise until they awake. If they are to awaken, we must get them off the opiates that make them comatose. We must get them off the commercial news.

Progressives and conservatives alike recognize that we have an obscene and belligerent presidency that is buoyed by a frightened and timorous congress. They see that the institutions of government are not servants of the people—they are the servants of their corporate pay masters. Depravity and concentrated wealth hold sway in the halls of government. The White House is a brothel teeming with corporate lobbyists, whose fornications are conducted beyond the pale of public view. Congress is as awash in corporate money as maggots on a corpse. The Bush cabal has to go. However, we must also recognize that the cancer extends well beyond Bush. We must recognize that the system itself is the malignancy. Effective and conscientious citizenship demands more from us than paying taxes and exercising our right to vote. It demands that we act for the common good with conscience and tenacity of purpose. Let us finish the revolution that was begun here in the 1700s.

Real democracy cannot be served by paying homage to freedom through garish displays of trinkets—flags and plastic yellow ribbons. These symbols are shallow, superfluous, and disingenuous. Anyone can administer them. To do so requires neither courage nor effort—real patriotism requires an abundance of both. Unlike real patriotism, the symbols of patriotism do not require thought or understanding—they are a conditioned response to the choreographed propaganda that oozes from our televisions and radios, the words that drip from the nation’s daily newspapers. Real patriots do not encourage the champions of Manifest Destiny in their grim work of conquest and empire—they actively oppose them and resist. Those who uphold the Constitution and the Bill of Rights when the government does not are the real patriots. They are America’s dissenters and protesters. They do not require flags and ribbons to demonstrate their patriotism. Their every gesture, their very lives, is an expression of the patriotism that might have made America a different place than it is now—if only there were more of them.

Charles Sullivan is a photographer and free lance writer residing in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. He welcomes your comments at earthdog@highstream.net.



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http://informationclearinghouse.info/article12179.htm

A CENTURY OF U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS:


From Wounded Knee to Afghanistan
Compiled by Zoltan Grossman
(revised 09/20/01)


Grossman: Killing Civilians

The List (Printing)
U.S. military spending ($343 billion in the year 2000) is 69 percent greater than that of the next five highest nations combined. Russia, which has the second largest military budget, spends less than one-sixth what the United States does. Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, Iran, and Syria spend $14.4 billion combined; Iran accounts for 52 percent of this total.

The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 1999. This guide does NOT include demonstration duty by military police, mobilizations of the National Guard, offshore shows of naval strength, reinforcements of embassy personnel, the use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the Drug Enforcement Agency), military exercises, non-combat mobilizations (such as replacing postal strikers), the permanent stationing of armed forces, covert actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role, the use of small hostage rescue units, most uses of proxy troops, U.S. piloting of foreign warplanes, foreign disaster assistance, military training and advisory programs not involving direct combat, civic action programs, and many other military activities. <

Among sources used, besides news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug. 1982), and Daniel Ellsberg in Protest & Survive. "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" by Ellen C. Collier of the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service.

SOUTH DAKOTA
1890 (-?)
Troops
300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded
Knee.
ARGENTINA
1890
Troops
Buenos Aires interests protected.

CHILE
1891
Troops
Marines clash with nationalist rebels.

HAITI
1891
Troops
Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated.

IDAHO
1892
Troops
Army suppresses silver miners' strike.

HAWAII
1893 (-?)
Naval, troops
Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.

CHICAGO
1894
Troops
Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.

NICARAGUA
1894
Troops
Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA
1894-95
Naval, troops
Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.

KOREA
1894-96
Troops
Marines kept in Seoul during war.

PANAMA
1895
Troops, naval
Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA
1896
Troops
Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA
1898-1900
Troops
Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.

PHILIPPINES
1898-1910(-?)
Naval, troops
Seized from Spain, killed
600,000 Filipinos.

CUBA
1898-1902(-?)
Naval, troops
Seized from Spain, still hold Navy
base.

PUERTO RICO
1898(-?)
Naval, troops
Seized from Spain, occupation
continues.

GUAM
1898(-?)
Naval, troops
Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA
1898(-?)
Troops
Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA
1898
Troops
Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.

SAMOA
1899(-?)
Troops
Battle over succession to throne.

NICARAGUA
1899
Troops
Marines land at port of Bluefields.

IDAHO
1899-1901
Troops
Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.

OKLAHOMA
1901
Troops
Army battles Creek Indian revolt.

PANAMA
1901-14
Naval, troops
Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914-99.

HONDURAS
1903
Troops
Marines intervene in revolution.

DOMINICAN REP.
1903-04
Troops
U.S. interests protected in Revolution.

KOREA
1904-05
Troops
Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.

CUBA
1906-09
Troops
Marines land in democratic election.

NICARAGUA
1907
Troops
"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.

HONDURAS
1907
Troops
Marines land during war with Nicaragua.

PANAMA
1908
Troops
Marines intervene in election contest.

NICARAGUA
1910
Troops
Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.

HONDURAS
1911
Troops
U.S. interests protected in civil war.

CHINA
1911-41
Naval, troops
Continuous occupation with flare-ups.

CUBA
1912
Troops
U.S. interests protected in Havana.

PANAMA
19l2
Troops
Marines land during heated election.

HONDURAS
19l2
Troops
Marines protect U.S. economic interests.

NICARAGUA
1912-33
Troops, bombing
20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.

MEXICO
19l3
Naval
Americans evacuated during revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1914
Naval
Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.

COLORADO
1914
Troops
Breaking of miners' strike by Army.

MEXICO
1914-18
Naval, troops
Series of interventions against
nationalists.

HAITI
1914-34
Troops, bombing
19-year occupation after revolts.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1916-24
Troops
8-year Marine occupation.

CUBA
1917-33
Troops
Military occupation, economic protectorate.

WORLD WAR I
19l7-18
Naval, troops
Ships sunk, fought Germany

RUSSIA
1918-22
Naval, troops
Five landings to fight Bolsheviks.


PANAMA
1918-20
Troops
"Police duty" during unrest after elections.

YUGOSLAVIA
1919
Troops
Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.

HONDURAS
1919
Troops
Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA
1920
Troops
2-week intervention against unionists.

WEST VIRGINIA
1920-21
Troops, bombing
Army intervenes against
mineworkers.

TURKEY
1922
Troops
Fought nationalists in Smyrna (Izmir).

CHINA
1922-27
Naval, troops
Deployment during nationalist revolt.

HONDURAS
1924-25
Troops
Landed twice during election strife.

PANAMA
1925
Troops
Marines suppress general strike.

CHINA
1927-34
Troops
Marines stationed throughout the country.

EL SALVADOR
1932
Naval
Warships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt.

WASHINGTON DC
1932
Troops
Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.

WORLD WAR II
1941-45
Naval,troops, bombing, nuclear
Fought Axis for 3
years; 1st nuclear war.

DETROIT
1943
Troops
Army puts down Black rebellion.

IRAN
1946
Nuclear threat
Soviet troops told to leave north (Iranian
Azerbaijan).

YUGOSLAVIA
1946
Naval
Response to shooting-down of U.S. plane.

URUGUAY
1947
Nuclear threat
Bombers deployed as show of strength.

GREECE
1947-49
Command operation
U.S. directs extreme-right in civil
war.

CHINA
1948-49
Troops
Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.

GERMANY
1948
Nuclear threat
Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.

PHILIPPINES
1948-54
Command operation
CIA directs war against Huk
Rebellion.

PUERTO RICO
1950
Command operation
Independence rebellion crushed in
Ponce.

KOREA
1950-53
Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats
U.S.&
South Korea fight China & North Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, & vs. China in 1953. Still have bases.

IRAN
1953
Command operation
CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.

VIETNAM
1954
Nuclear threat
Bombs offered to French to use against
siege.

GUATEMALA
1954
Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalizes U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.

EGYPT
1956
Nuclear threat, troops
Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; MArines evacuate foreigners

LEBANON
1958
Troops, naval
Marine occupation against rebels.

IRAQ
1958
Nuclear threat
Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.

CHINA
1958
Nuclear threat
China told not to move on Taiwan isles.

PANAMA
1958
Troops
Flag protests erupt into confrontation.

VIETNAM
1960-75
Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; 1-2 million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in 1968 and 1969.

CUBA
1961
Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.

GERMANY
1961
Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.

CUBA
1962
Nuclear threat
Naval
Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with USSR.

LAOS
1962
Command operation
Military buildup during guerrilla war.

PANAMA
1964
Troops
Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.

INDONESIA
1965
Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1965-66
Troops, bombing Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA
1966-67
Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.

DETROIT
1967
Troops
Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.

UNITED STATES
1968
Troops
After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

CAMBODIA
1969-75
Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.

OMAN
1970
Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.




LAOS
1971-73
Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.

SOUTH DAKOTA
1973
Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.

MIDEAST
1973
Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.

CHILE
1973
Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.

CAMBODIA
1975
Troops, bombing Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.

ANGOLA
1976-92
Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.

IRAN
1980
Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.

LIBYA
1981
Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.

EL SALVADOR
1981-92
Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.

NICARAGUA
1981-90
Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.

LEBANON
1982-84
Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim and Syrian positions.

HONDURAS
1983-89
Troops
Maneuvers help build bases near borders.

GRENADA
1983-84
Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.

IRAN
1984
Jets
Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.

LIBYA
1986
Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't.

BOLIVIA
1986
Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.

IRAN
1987-88
Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war.

LIBYA
1989
Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.

VIRGIN ISLANDS
1989
Troops
St. Croix Black unrest after storm.

PHILIPPINES
1989
Jets
Air cover provided for government against coup.

PANAMA
1989-90
Troops, bombing
Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.

LIBERIA
1990
Troops
Foreigners evacuated during civil war.

SAUDI ARABIA
1990-91
Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait; 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.

IRAQ
1990-?
Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south, large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.

KUWAIT
1991
Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.

LOS ANGELES
1992
Troops
Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.

SOMALIA
1992-94
Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.

YUGOSLAVIA
1992-94
Naval
Nato blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.

BOSNIA
1993-95
Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.

HAITI
1994-96
Troops, naval
Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.

CROATIA
1995
Bombing
Krajina Serb airfields attacked before Croatian offensive.

ZAIRE (CONGO)
1996-97
Troops
Marines at Rwandan Hutu refuge camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.

LIBERIA
1997
Troops
Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

ALBANIA
1997
Troops
Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

SUDAN
1998
Missiles
Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant.

AFGHANISTAN
1998
Missiles
Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.

IRAQ
1998-?
Bombing, Missiles
Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.

YUGOSLAVIA
1999-?
Bombing, Missiles
Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo.

YEMEN
2000
Naval
Suicide bomb attack on USS Cole.

MACEDONIA
2001
Troops
NATO troops shift and partially disarm Albanian rebels.

UNITED STATES
2001
Jets, naval
Response to hijacking attacks.

AFGHANISTAN
2001
Massive U.S. mobilization to attack Taliban, Bin Laden. War could expand to Iraq, Sudan, and beyond.

.
For more information or with comments and additions please contact:
Zoltan Grossman, 1705 Rutledge, Madison, WI 53704 Phone Fax
(608)246-2256. mtn@igc.apc.org
Permission to reproduce this list in its entirety
is granted by the author, please send any published copy to the above
address.<
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