Community Advocacy on Environmental and Social Justice

Wednesday, 30 January 2013

AWhere Weather Data for Climate Change

Hello Climate concious freinds.

I would like to introduce aWhere Weather.  

Interactive and accessible weather data are instrumental for improved research, more effective extension and greater context in shaping policies relating to the environment, agricultural development and global health.  aWhere Weather is a powerful research and decision making tool, providing an interactive application to access and receive notifications for key weather data for user-selected locations.


Data are available for East, Southern, and West Africa as well as South Asia. These data are provided as weather surfaces – essentially a full weather station every 9 kilometers.  Both daily observed (3 -5 year history) and forecasted weather data are available for the following variables:
-    Precipitation 
-    Minimum and Maximum Temperature
-    Minimum and Maximum Relative Humidity 
-    Solar Radiation 
-    Maximum and Morning Wind Speed 
-    Growing degree days (dynamically calculated for your base and cap temperature)

Access aWhere Weather and begin seeing weather data for your locations of interest! http://www.awhere.com/en-us/weather-p 

ODM / TNA.An election plan 'not worth taking seriously'



The "CORD" coalition - one of Kenya's two leading contenders in the current election campaign – has just launched its manifesto with stirring music, high-minded speeches, and rapturous applause.I'm sitting at my desk, with a deepening furrow in my brow, and the back of an envelope rapidly filling with sums that just don't add up.
At first glance, it is an impressive to-do list for a coalition that has a genuine chance of winning the election and an opportunity to deliver on its promises.
Here's a selection of some of the highlights, in no particular order:
Cord promises to…
  • Introduce a pension scheme for those aged 65 and over
  • Establish a universal national health insurance scheme
  • Invest 2.5 percent of GDP in research and development
  • Invest at least 10 percent of GDP in infrastructure over the next five years
  • Establish computer laboratories and internet services in all public schools
  • Accelerate economic growth to 10 percent by 2014 (this was from presidential candidate Raila Odinga's speech and not contained in the manifesto its self)
Reading through the manifesto is a giddying experience. You can't help but feel excited by the country it describes. Fast, efficient infrastructure; well-educated, computer-literate kids; a broad, solid social safety net to protect families and retirees from falling into poverty; a well-paid, uncorrupt andprofessional civil service… you get the idea.

Who pays the bills?

But then I tried to find the small print that tells us how CORD is going to pay for this African Utopia, and it just isn't there. Any serious political manifesto would offer us both sides of the ledger, but this one is completely silent on how much any of these grand schemes might cost taxpayers. Instead, I've been doing some homework of my own.
According to the last census, Kenya has just over a million people over the age of 65. The manifesto offers no details about the pension, but in other countries it is often pegged to the minimum wage (equivalent to about $85). At that level, it will cost the government just over one billion dollars a year. Last year, the government's total budget was worth 17 billion dollars.
The proposal to put 2.5 percent of GDP into R&D would make Kenya 12th in the world in terms of the proportion of national product invested, and more than twice the amount the nearest African nation spends (Tunisia at 1.02 percent).
The proposed investments in infrastructure are even more breathtaking. The 10% figure is twice what European countries spend on average, and even more than the global leader China spends (9 percent).
I am not suggesting that these investments aren't necessary or that they're not good ideas; just that without a clearly explained plan to implement them, the manifesto is a meaningless wish-list that simply does not stand up to scrutiny.
And this issue is about more than about simply holding Kenya's politicians to account for their promises. It cuts to the core problem within the nation's corrosive political culture.

The collapse of political debate

Soon after CORD launched its manifesto, I started tweeting some of these questions. Pretty quickly, people responded with remarks like, "That document's largely a joke. Not worth taking seriously."
The bottom line seems to be that it isn't intended for serious debate. Nobody expects it to be a serious political platform that stands up to scrutiny. It is implicitly understood that the party manifestos are not really a part of this election.
In fact, the fundamental principle of a democratic election – a vigorous national debate to chose between competing policies and national visions – is completely absent here.
Of course the stump speeches all contain grand ideas for the country, but there is no serious dissection of what those promises might mean; how much they might cost; what the unintended consequences might be; and whether they really are such a good idea under the circumstances. And anyway, a close examination of the rival party platforms shows almost no difference between them what so ever.
So, in the absence of that debate, what really does drive the voters' choices in Kenya?

"Kenyans are more divided along ethnic and regional lines…"

The answer is as straightforward as it is unpalatable: it is all about tribe.
This is the first election held under a new constitution drafted specifically to avoid the tribalism that triggered shocking violence during and after the last elections. Back then, every politician solemnly swore they would never take the country back to those dark days. But in the absence of parties built around clear policy visions, politicians have appealed – and voters seem to be responding to – the strongest uniting force in Kenya, which is tribe.
In a recent paper, the respected Brookings Institute suggested that, "Actually, there are early indications that Kenyans will head to the polls more fractionalized along ethnic and regional lines compared to the previous election…"
It is a sobering and deeply worrying conclusion. Of course, violence is not inevitable here, but without a credible choice between competing political visions for the country, voters seem to be dividing along ethnic lines. And as Kenyans are all to aware, that is a dangerous place for this country to be in.
http://blogs.aljazeera.com/blog/africa/election-plan-not-worth-taking-seriously

Tuesday, 29 January 2013

Support for fresher Governors

____
__ __
Citizens Pathway:
__ __
Understanding the critical role of Kenya’s upcoming Governors, and
realising that we may get a wide spectrum of calibre and experience, we
need to fast-track anything we can think of to support people in these
new positions. As we agreed, Citizens Pathway doesn’t have capacity to
do this, so we need to circulate to those who can. So here is an idea
description in a nutshell that we can share with relevant organizations
that have capacity:____
__ __
*Guidance for Fresher Governors Concept____*

*Rationale: ____*

__·__Kenya’s new Governors will be the first ever, taking on tremendous
responsibility with paltry resources and challenging local government
histories (i.e. dysfunctional systems and retrogressive cultures). Some
of the Governors may have what it takes to hit the ground running, but
the majority may find it hard going. ____

__·__So the business and management community have a unique opportunity
to contribute to Governors setting off on a strong note through
carefully targeted support.____

__·__The new Governors will essentially have a major change management
task on their hands and need insights from seasoned management
professionals, corporate leaders, etc on how to approach their work.____
__ __
*What: ____*

__·__A guidance document for governor-elects on *critical success
factors* for running the county well in terms of administration,
management and leadership. ____

__·__Focus on the broad approaches (rather than the details – others may
do that) that have proven to work in Kenya. ____

__·__A concise document perhaps targeting their first 3 months or first
one year – essentially like a draft plan of work for a leader/change
manager.____
__ __
*How: ____*

__·__Gathering the content could take a workshop or media event/series
involving highly credible sources of knowledge and skill, with
structured facilitation to ensure that key guidance points emerge. ____

__·__It may be necessary to first assess needs based on the publicly
available information on the gubernatorial candidates.____
__ __
*Suggested timeline and dissemination: ____*

__·__It would be great if each Governor-elect could receive this within
the first week after elections. ____

__·__Preferably, the mode of delivery would ensure that it is not just
one of the documents they can throw away. ____

__·__Participating organizations and other stakeholders could make the
document available on their websites.____
__ __
Thanks and regards,____

Njeri____ 
Ory Okolloh <ookolloh@gmail.com>
___________

World Heritage Volunteers 2013 - Patrimonito Voluntary Action - Inspiring change


Following the successful WHV campaign to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention with 50 projects organized in 40 World Heritage sites around the world in 2012, we have the pleasure to launch the World Heritage Volunteers 2013 (WHV 2013), welcoming the participation of all interested organizations.

In the framework of the UNESCO World Heritage Education Programme, this initiative is co-organized by the World Heritage Centre (WHC) and the Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service (CCIVS).
The objectives of the WHV 2013 are the following:
  • Sensitize the international and local volunteers, the local communities as well as the concerned authorities around issues related to World Heritage;
  • Increase the contribution by the youth and voluntary service organizations to World Heritage promotion and preservation, especially at the sites in danger and natural sites with activities planned on the basis of the concrete needs of the site;
  • Contribute to the development of non-formal education tools to strengthen the sense of ownership regarding our common heritage by documenting new methods to promote World Heritage and providing young volunteers with hands-on skills training on basic conservation and preservation techniques;
  • Further strengthen synergies between the local youth organization and the local community, site management, national and local authorities towards establishment of concrete cooperation following the result of the projects, and link cooperation to the issue of sustainable development.
An increasing number of projects have been selected since the first edition of the World Heritage Volunteers. However and even though the selection is open to all, future WHV projects must fulfil a set of criteria indicated below. Such process not only aims at the participation of the most relevant projects but also at a better coordination of the selected projects. The organizations are also required to send a detailed programme of activities after the official selection of projects.
Criteria for Selection
  • Project is organized in immediate connection to a site inscribed on the World Heritage List or a site on the country’s Tentative List  [Ref:http://whc.unesco.org/en/list ;  http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists ];
  • Project organizers demonstrate best efforts to involve the community, site managers and local authorities in planning details of the activities;
  • Activities include a systematic reflection on issues related to World Heritage as well as practical hands-on skills training for the volunteers;
  • The project can be linked to one of the following themes: Sustainable Development; International Year of Water Cooperation (2013);
  • Project organizers engage themselves to implement the project as per approved proposals and to submit a full activity report (including images, videos and other results) demonstrating the concrete engagement of young volunteers in the field of World Heritage. UNESCO shall use these for promotional purposes, among others publication in UNESCO's website, the World Heritage Review, for information to the different States Parties and concerned governmental agencies.
  • Each organization is eligible to apply for a maximum of 4 projects.
  • The evaluation report of previous WHV projects done by the same organization has to be submitted in order for the new proposals to be considered. 
  • Organizations are responsible for informing UNESCO-WHC and CCIVS about any changes and major challenges related to the selected projects.
The implementation of WHV projects will be carried out in close cooperation between the UNESCO WHC, CCIVS and organizations whose projects will have been selected.
The UNESCO WHC and CCIVS will provide institutional and educational monitoring as well as promotional support. An official selection letter will be sent to the World Heritage site managers in charge of the sites where the selected projects will take place, UNESCO Field Offices and the relevant National Commissions. The organizations will receive educational resource materials (maps, leaflets, DVDs) to help them to run their awareness-raising activities.
UNESCO WHC and CCIVS representatives will also visit some of the selected projects in order to monitor the project implementation. The promotion of the projects to a large audience through local and national media coverage will be facilitated by the authorization to carry the Patrimonito label as well as by the use of promotional material during the projects.
Representing a young guardian, the logo Patrimonito symbolises the interdependence of culture and nature. Created on the basis of the World Heritage emblem, the central square is a form created by people and the circle represents nature, the two being intimately linked. The emblem is round like the world, but at the same time, it is a symbol of protection.
Participating organizations engage to submit an evaluation report, a financial report and other annexes illustrating the concrete involvement of young volunteers in the field of World Heritage. A UNESCO certificate will be handed out to all the participating organizations following the implementation the WHV 2013 projects.
Evaluation is an integral part of the WHV projects' implementation. All the selected organizations of the 2013 WHV campaign will be invited to a Workshop and Planning meeting scheduled from the 4 to the 8 of March 2013, in Spitz an der Donau / Wachau, Austria.
World Heritage Volunteer Projects Calendar
28-30 January  2013
Deadline for submission of application form
4-10 February 2013
Announcement of selected WHV projects. The official confirmation letter will be sent to the organisation and to the official site manager.
Before the beginning of WHV projects
Submission of planned activities
Mailing of promotional and educational material
After the end of WHV projects
Submission of evaluation report and financial report
In order to get involved in or renew your commitment to the protection and preservation of World Heritage through voluntary action and non formal education, please fill in the attached application form and send it back by 28-30 January 2013
to : c.quin@unesco.org and i.yousfi@unesco.org
with a copy to
secretariat@ccivs.org
We look forward to receiving your proposals and remain at your disposal for any clarification needed.

Kenyan voters lack information on candidates for local posts


By Rajab Ramah in Nairobi

With fewer than 40 days remaining before the March 4th elections in Kenya, concern is growing that many citizens still do not know much about candidates vying for local seats.
  • A Kenyan casts his ballot in Nairobi during party nominations on January 17th. Many citizens say they still do not know much about candidates vying for local seats. [Simon Maina/AFP] A Kenyan casts his ballot in Nairobi during party nominations on January 17th. Many citizens say they still do not know much about candidates vying for local seats. [Simon Maina/AFP]
Nairobi residents say that while they feel well informed about the presidential candidates, they have insufficient information about candidates at the local level.
"I am confused," said Anyango Auma, 37, a street vendor in Nairobi's Donholm neighbourhood. "As we speak, I still do not know who is vying for county governor, member of the National Assembly, county women representative, member of senate or civic wards."
"All I have been hearing at the political rallies and other various forums is Raila Odinga or Uhuru Kenyatta for president," he told Sabahi.
Prime Minister Odinga is the presidential candidate for the Coalition of Reforms and Democracy, whereas Deputy Prime Minister Kenyatta is running under the Jubilee Coalition ticket. The two men are considered the main contenders for the presidency in the next election, which ushers in a devolved system of government that puts more power in the hands of local governments.

Lack of information a 'worrying trend'

Under the new re-organisation stipulated by the 2010 constitution, government systems in Kenya's eight provinces will be replaced with 47 county administrations that will act as the second tier of government after the federal authority.
In previous elections, Kenyans voted only for president, members of parliament and councillors (ward representatives). In March, Kenyans will vote for six elective posts: president, senators, county governors, members of parliament, civic wards and women county representatives.
Alex Mung'aro, an accountant in Nairobi, said he did not participate in last week's political party primaries because he had insufficient information.
"My boss gave us a day off so we could participate in the party nominations, but I did not take part because I had no idea [who the candidates were] angling for the parties' tickets," he told Sabahi.
Director of the Institute for Education in Democracy Peter Aling'o called the lack of information among voters a "worrying trend".
"It is very worrisome because an uniformed voter will always make unwise decisions, which is detrimental to democracy and good governance," he told Sabahi. "It poses a danger to the positive gains the devolved government promises to bring in Kenya."
Aling'o blamed the media and government institutions for failing to educate the public about the constitutionally mandated decentralisation of the government.
"The media has been awash with news centred on two presidential candidates -- Odinga and Kenyatta. They have reduced everything to two individuals, making it seem like elections are only about the presidency," he said. "On other hand, the electoral body and political parties have failed to carry out sufficient voter education to empower the citizens on their role."
Adams Oloo, a political science lecturer at the University of Nairobi, said unless Kenyans are equipped with knowledge about the candidates, election day will be "chaotic".
"This is the first time Kenyans are participating in such a complicated voting exercise, but if they are not prepared well in advance, then they might make errors," he told Sabahi. "Going to elections without knowing whom to vote for will see voters cast their ballot for people they do not know."
"But all is not lost yet," he said. "If a massive voter education [campaign] is launched countrywide during the few remaining days, I am confident Kenyans will learn how to participate."

IEBC: No reason to worry

Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) chief executive officer James Oswago also said there is no reason for alarm.
He said the IEBC is carrying out voter education in stages to avoid overwhelming the public with too much information.
"There is no reason to worry," he told Sabahi. "In November last year, our voter education was focused on encouraging the public to register as voters. This week and part of next week, our messages are designed to convince them to check their registration status before we can embark on a full-swing education on the seats up for grabs and the functions of those elective posts."
He cautioned, however, that voter education is not the sole responsibility of the IEBC, but should also be carried out by political parties and civil society groups.
On March 4th, Kenyans will select candidates for 1,882 elective posts: 290 members of parliament, 47 senators, 47 county governors, 47 women county representatives, 1,450 civic wards and the presidency. 

Tuesday, 15 January 2013

New (2013) Learning Opportunities from the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)


The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) announces its February to June 2013 Online Courses for a global audience of finance and trade officials. May we request to kindly circulate this information to relevant colleagues or organizations.

Key reasons to participate: Our online courses extend beyond mere content to incorporate experiential and collaborative learning, which is essential for real understanding. Learners achieve this through multiple instructional tools and innovative delivery approaches that allow them to reflect and link the concepts with real-world, practical solutions.

Methodology: The instructional design and methodologies are adapted around the learning styles of adult learners for maximum accessibility and flexibility. All courses are instructor-moderated by international experts and practitioners with a wealth of practical experience and know-how.

Certificate of Completion: A certificate of completion will be issued by UNITAR to all participants who complete the course-related assignments and assessments successfully.


LIST OF UPCOMING 2013 COURSES
Full list and online registration is available online at:http://www.unitar.org/pft/events


FEBRUARY 2013 COURSES

Fundamentals of Risk Management
Course Dates: 4 February to 1 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Numerical Methods for Finance and Capital Markets (new)
Course Dates: 11 February to 22 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Corporate Governance
Course Dates: 18 February to 15 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Mathematics of Finance (new)
Course Dates: 18 February to 22 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Capital Market Development and Regulation
Course Dates: 18 February to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Anti-Money Laundering: International Standards and Compliance Issues
Course Dates: 18 February to 22 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

International Negotiations: Practical Skills and Techniques (Arabic)
Course Dates: 18 February to 15 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Introduction to International Intellectual Property Law
Course Dates: 25 February to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Statistics, Knowledge and Policy: Understanding Societal Change
Course Dates: 25 February to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Governance of Extractive Industries
Course Dates: 25 February to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Sustainable Development: Idea, Process and Goal
Course Dates: 25 February to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Microfinance
Course Dates: 25 February to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated


MARCH 2013 COURSES

Fundamentals of Business Finance (new)
Course Dates: 4 March to 12 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Técnica y Práctica en la NegociaciónInternacional
Course Dates: 4 to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Central Banking and Monetary Policy
Course Dates: 4 March to 5 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of the Financial System
Course Dates: 4 March to 5 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Global Financial Governance
Course Dates: 4 to 29 March 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Cross Cultural Negotiation
Course Dates: 11 March to 12 April 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Advanced Risk Management
Course Dates: 11 March to 12 April 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Tips and Techniques
Course Dates: 11 March to 19 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Capital Market Development & Regulation - Advanced Course
Course Dates: 11 March to 19 April 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Arbitration & Alternative Dispute Resolution (Introductory Course)
Course Dates: 18 March to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Millennium Development Goals and Debt Management
Course Dates: 18 March to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Développement et régulation des marchés des capitaux – cours de base (new)
In partnership with Agence pour la coopération et le développement – Banques Populaires (ABPCD)
Course Dates: 18 March to 26 April 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Public Funds and their Auditing (new)
Course Dates: 18 March to 19 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Effective Public Debt Management
Course Dates: 25 March to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Financial Globalization
Course Dates: 25 March to 26 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of the Derivative Markets
Course Dates: 25 March to 26 April 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

The Settlement of Disputes under the World Trade Organization (WTO)
Course Dates: 25 March to 20 April 2012 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated


APRIL 2013 COURSES

Combating Corruption in Public Financial Management
Course Dates: 1 April to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of the Foreign Exchange Market
Course Dates: 1 April to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Introduction to Public Procurement
Course Dates: 1 April to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Introduction to Privacy and Data Protection Law
Course Dates: 1 April to 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Audit of Public Debt
Course Dates: 8 April to 10 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Governance of Public Finance
Course Dates: 8 April to 10 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Managing Public Finance: Internal and External Controls
Course Dates: 8 April to 10 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Understanding International Contracts and Loan Agreements
Course Dates: 8 April to 17 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Negociacion para la Resolucion de Conflictos y Disputas
Course Dates: 8 April - 3 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of the Equity Market
Course Dates: 15 April to 17 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Negotiating for Conflict and Dispute Resolution
Course Dates: 15 April to 17 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Leadership Skills for Finance Managers
Course Dates: 15 April to 17 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of the Life-Cycle and Investments
Course Dates: 15 April to 17 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Trade Finance Infrastructure Development
In partnership with UN ESCAP
Course Dates: 15 April to 24 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Economics of the Public Sector
Course Dates: 22 April to 24 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of the Bond Market
Course Dates: 22 April to 24 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Essentials of Banking Regulation and Basel III (new)
Course Dates: 29 April to 31 May 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Banking
Course Dates: 29 April to 31 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Ethics in Public Finance (new)
Course Dates: 29 April to 24 May 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated


MAY 2013 COURSES

International Negotiations: Practical Skills and Techniques 
Course Dates: 6 May to 7 June 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Drafting and Negotiating Clauses of Loan Agreements  
Course Dates: 6 May to 14 June 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Gestión de riesgos
Course Dates: 6 May to 31 May 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Negotiation of Financial Transactions
Course Dates: 06 May - 14 June 2013  | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Advanced Public Procurement    
Course Dates: 13 May to 14 June 2013 | Fee US$800 | Instructor-moderated

Fundamentals of Money Creation   
Course Dates: 13 May to 14 June 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution - Foundation Course
Course Dates: 20 May to 5 July 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated


JUNE TO DECEMBER 2013 (more courses to be added shortly)

Introduccion al DerechoInternacional de la PropiedadIntelectual (nuevocurso)
Course Dates: 3 June - 28 June 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Debt Rescheduling with the Paris Club
Course Dates: 2 September to 18 October 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated

Legal Aspects of Public Debt Management
Course Dates: 9 September to 18 October 2013 | Fee US$600 | Instructor-moderated



For more information about our courses, please visit our website or contact us.

e-Learning Team
Public Finance and Trade Programme
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland