Community Advocacy on Environmental and Social Justice

Thursday, 5 April 2012

Kyoto Protocol.1998


KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK
CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
 The Parties to this Protocol,
 Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,
 In pursuit of the ultimate objective of the Convention as stated in its Article 2,
 Recalling the provisions of the Convention,
Being guided by Article 3 of the Convention,
 Pursuant to the Berlin Mandate adopted by decision 1/CP.1 of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention at its first session,
 Have agreed as follows:
Article 1
 For the purposes of this Protocol, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention
shall apply.  In addition:
1. “Conference of the Parties” means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
2. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
3. “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” means the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change established in 1988 jointly by the World Meteorological Organization and the
United Nations Environment Programme.
4. “Montreal Protocol” means the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer, adopted in Montreal on 16 September 1987 and as subsequently adjusted and amended.
5. “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative
vote.
6. “Party” means, unless the context otherwise indicates, a Party to this Protocol.
7. “Party included in Annex I” means a Party included in Annex I to the Convention, as
may be amended, or a Party which has made a notification under Article 4, paragraph 2 (g), of
the Convention.
Article 2
1. Each Party included in Annex I, in achieving its quantified emission limitation and
reduction commitments under Article 3, in order to promote sustainable development, shall: - 2 -
 (a) Implement and/or further elaborate policies and measures in accordance with its
national circumstances, such as:
(i) Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national
economy;
(ii) Protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases not
controlled by the Montreal Protocol, taking into account its commitments
under relevant international environmental agreements; promotion of
sustainable forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation;
(iii) Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture in light of climate change
considerations;
(iv) Research on, and promotion, development and increased use of, new and
renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies
and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies;
(v) Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections, fiscal
incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all greenhouse gas
emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the Convention and
application of market instruments;
(vi) Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at
promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce emissions of
greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol;
(vii) Measures to limit and/or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not
controlled by the Montreal Protocol in the transport sector;
(viii) Limitation and/or reduction of methane emissions through recovery and
use in waste management, as well as in the production, transport and
distribution of energy;
 (b) Cooperate with other such Parties to enhance the individual and combined
effectiveness of their policies and measures adopted under this Article, pursuant to Article 4,
paragraph 2 (e) (i), of the Convention.  To this end, these Parties shall take steps to share their
experience and exchange information on such policies and measures, including developing
ways of improving their comparability, transparency and effectiveness.  The Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first session or as soon
as practicable thereafter, consider ways to facilitate such cooperation, taking into account all
relevant information.
2. The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of
greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from aviation and marine bunker fuels,
working through the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime
Organization, respectively. - 3 -
3. The Parties included in Annex I shall strive to implement policies and measures under
this Article in such a way as to minimize adverse effects, including the adverse effects of climate
change, effects on international trade, and social, environmental and economic impacts on other
Parties, especially developing country Parties and in particular those identified in Article 4,
paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention, taking into account Article 3 of the Convention.  The
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol may take further
action, as appropriate, to promote the implementation of the provisions of this paragraph.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol,
if it decides that it would be beneficial to coordinate any of the policies and measures in
paragraph 1 (a) above, taking into account different national circumstances and potential effects,
shall consider ways and means to elaborate the coordination of such policies and measures.
Article 3
1. The Parties included in Annex I shall, individually or jointly, ensure that their aggregate
anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A
do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated pursuant to their quantified emission limitation
and reduction commitments inscribed in Annex B and in accordance with the provisions of this
Article, with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases by at least 5 per cent
below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012.
2. Each Party included in Annex I shall, by 2005, have made demonstrable progress in
achieving its commitments under this Protocol.
3. The net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting
from direct human-induced land-use change and forestry activities, limited to afforestation,
reforestation and deforestation since 1990, measured as verifiable changes in carbon stocks in
each commitment period, shall be used to meet the commitments under this Article of each Party
included in Annex I.  The greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks associated
with those activities shall be reported in a transparent and verifiable manner and reviewed in
accordance with Articles 7 and 8.
4. Prior to the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol, each Party included in Annex I shall provide, for consideration by the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, data to establish its level of carbon
stocks in 1990 and to enable an estimate to be made of its changes in carbon stocks in
subsequent years.  The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall, at its first session or as soon as practicable thereafter, decide upon modalities,
rules and guidelines as to how, and which, additional human-induced activities related to
changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks in the agricultural soils
and the land-use change and forestry categories shall be added to, or subtracted from, the
assigned amounts for Parties included in Annex I, taking into account uncertainties, transparency
in reporting, verifiability, the methodological work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, the advice provided by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice in
accordance with Article 5 and the decisions of the Conference of the Parties.  Such a decision
shall apply in the second and subsequent commitment periods.  A Party may choose to apply
such a decision on these additional human-induced activities for its first commitment period,
provided that these activities have taken place since 1990. - 4 -
5. The Parties included in Annex I undergoing the process of transition to a market
economy whose base year or period was established pursuant to decision 9/CP.2 of the
Conference of the Parties at its second session shall use that base year or period for the
implementation of their commitments under this Article.  Any other Party included in Annex I
undergoing the process of transition to a market economy which has not yet submitted its first
national communication under Article 12 of the Convention may also notify the Conference
of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol that it intends to use an
historical base year or period other than 1990 for the implementation of its commitments under
this Article.  The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall decide on the acceptance of such notification.
6. Taking into account Article 4, paragraph 6, of the Convention, in the implementation of
their commitments under this Protocol other than those under this Article, a certain degree of
flexibility shall be allowed by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to this Protocol to the Parties included in Annex I undergoing the process of transition to a
market economy.
7. In the first quantified emission limitation and reduction commitment period, from 2008
to 2012, the assigned amount for each Party included in Annex I shall be equal to the percentage
inscribed for it in Annex B of its aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions
of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A in 1990, or the base year or period determined in
accordance with paragraph 5 above, multiplied by five.  Those Parties included in Annex I
for whom land-use change and forestry constituted a net source of greenhouse gas emissions
in 1990 shall include in their 1990 emissions base year or period the aggregate anthropogenic
carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by sources minus removals by sinks in 1990 from land-use
change for the purposes of calculating their assigned amount.
8. Any Party included in Annex I may use 1995 as its base year for hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride, for the purposes of the calculation referred to in
paragraph 7 above.
9. Commitments for subsequent periods for Parties included in Annex I shall be established
in amendments to Annex B to this Protocol, which shall be adopted in accordance with the
provisions of Article 21, paragraph 7.  The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to this Protocol shall initiate the consideration of such commitments at least
seven years before the end of the first commitment period referred to in paragraph 1 above.
10. Any emission reduction units, or any part of an assigned amount, which a Party acquires
from another Party in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 or of Article 17 shall be added
to the assigned amount for the acquiring Party.
11. Any emission reduction units, or any part of an assigned amount, which a Party transfers
to another Party in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 or of Article 17 shall be
subtracted from the assigned amount for the transferring Party.
12. Any certified emission reductions which a Party acquires from another Party in
accordance with the provisions of Article 12 shall be added to the assigned amount for the
acquiring Party. - 5 -
13. If the emissions of a Party included in Annex I in a commitment period are less than its
assigned amount under this Article, this difference shall, on request of that Party, be added to the
assigned amount for that Party for subsequent commitment periods.
14. Each Party included in Annex I shall strive to implement the commitments mentioned in
paragraph 1 above in such a way as to minimize adverse social, environmental and economic
impacts on developing country Parties, particularly those identified in Article 4, paragraphs 8
and 9, of the Convention.  In line with relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties on the
implementation of those paragraphs, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first session, consider what actions are necessary to minimize
the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impacts of response measures on Parties referred
to in those paragraphs.  Among the issues to be considered shall be the establishment of funding,
insurance and transfer of technology.
Article 4
1. Any Parties included in Annex I that have reached an agreement to fulfil their
commitments under Article 3 jointly, shall be deemed to have met those commitments provided
that their total combined aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the
greenhouse gases listed in Annex A do not exceed their assigned amounts calculated pursuant to
their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments inscribed in Annex B and in
accordance with the provisions of Article 3.  The respective emission level allocated to each of
the Parties to the agreement shall be set out in that agreement.
2. The Parties to any such agreement shall notify the secretariat of the terms of the
agreement on the date of deposit of their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval
of this Protocol, or accession thereto.  The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and
signatories to the Convention of the terms of the agreement.
3. Any such agreement shall remain in operation for the duration of the commitment period
specified in Article 3, paragraph 7.
4. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic
integration organization, any alteration in the composition of the organization after adoption of
this Protocol shall not affect existing commitments under this Protocol.  Any alteration in the
composition of the organization shall only apply for the purposes of those commitments under
Article 3 that are adopted subsequent to that alteration.
5. In the event of failure by the Parties to such an agreement to achieve their total combined
level of emission reductions, each Party to that agreement shall be responsible for its own level
of emissions set out in the agreement.
6. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic
integration organization which is itself a Party to this Protocol, each member State of that
regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic
integration organization acting in accordance with Article 24, shall, in the event of failure to
achieve the total combined level of emission reductions, be responsible for its level of emissions
as notified in accordance with this Article. - 6 -
Article 5
1. Each Party included in Annex I shall have in place, no later than one year prior to the
start of the first commitment period, a national system for the estimation of anthropogenic
emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the
Montreal Protocol.  Guidelines for such national systems, which shall incorporate the
methodologies specified in paragraph 2 below, shall be decided upon by the Conference of
the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol at its first session.
2. Methodologies for estimating anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks
of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol shall be those accepted by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties
at its third session.  Where such methodologies are not used, appropriate adjustments shall be
applied according to methodologies agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the
meeting of the Parties to this Protocol at its first session.  Based on the work of, inter alia, the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and advice provided by the Subsidiary Body for
Scientific and Technological Advice, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol shall regularly review and, as appropriate, revise such methodologies and
adjustments, taking fully into account any relevant decisions by the Conference of the Parties.
Any revision to methodologies or adjustments shall be used only for the purposes of ascertaining
compliance with commitments under Article 3 in respect of any commitment period adopted
subsequent to that revision.
3. The global warming potentials used to calculate the carbon dioxide equivalence of
anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases listed in
Annex A shall be those accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and agreed
upon by the Conference of the Parties at its third session.  Based on the work of, inter alia, the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and advice provided by the Subsidiary Body for
Scientific and Technological Advice, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol shall regularly review and, as appropriate, revise the global warming
potential of each such greenhouse gas, taking fully into account any relevant decisions by the
Conference of the Parties.  Any revision to a global warming potential shall apply only to
commitments under Article 3 in respect of any commitment period adopted subsequent to that
revision.
Article 6
1. For the purpose of meeting its commitments under Article 3, any Party included in
Annex I may transfer to, or acquire from, any other such Party emission reduction units resulting
from projects aimed at reducing anthropogenic emissions by sources or enhancing anthropogenic
removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in any sector of the economy, provided that:
 (a) Any such project has the approval of the Parties involved;
 (b) Any such project provides a reduction in emissions by sources, or an
enhancement of removals by sinks, that is additional to any that would otherwise occur; - 7 -
 (c) It does not acquire any emission reduction units if it is not in compliance with its
obligations under Articles 5 and 7; and
 (d) The acquisition of emission reduction units shall be supplemental to domestic
actions for the purposes of meeting commitments under Article 3.
2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
may, at its first session or as soon as practicable thereafter, further elaborate guidelines for
the implementation of this Article, including for verification and reporting.
3. A Party included in Annex I may authorize legal entities to participate, under its
responsibility, in actions leading to the generation, transfer or acquisition under this Article
of emission reduction units.
4. If a question of implementation by a Party included in Annex I of the requirements
referred to in this Article is identified in accordance with the relevant provisions of Article 8,
transfers and acquisitions of emission reduction units may continue to be made after the
question has been identified, provided that any such units may not be used by a Party to meet
its commitments under Article 3 until any issue of compliance is resolved.
Article 7
1. Each Party included in Annex I shall incorporate in its annual inventory of anthropogenic
emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal
Protocol, submitted in accordance with the relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties,
the necessary supplementary information for the purposes of ensuring compliance with Article 3,
to be determined in accordance with paragraph 4 below.
2. Each Party included in Annex I shall incorporate in its national communication,
submitted under Article 12 of the Convention, the supplementary information necessary to
demonstrate compliance with its commitments under this Protocol, to be determined in
accordance with paragraph 4 below.
3. Each Party included in Annex I shall submit the information required under paragraph 1
above annually, beginning with the first inventory due under the Convention for the first year
of the commitment period after this Protocol has entered into force for that Party.  Each such
Party shall submit the information required under paragraph 2 above as part of the first national
communication due under the Convention after this Protocol has entered into force for it and
after the adoption of guidelines as provided for in paragraph 4 below.  The frequency of
subsequent submission of information required under this Article shall be determined by the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, taking into
account any timetable for the submission of national communications decided upon by the
Conference of the Parties.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall
adopt at its first session, and review periodically thereafter, guidelines for the preparation of the
information required under this Article, taking into account guidelines for the preparation of  - 8 -
national communications by Parties included in Annex I adopted by the Conference of the
Parties.  The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall also, prior to the first commitment period, decide upon modalities for the accounting of
assigned amounts.
Article 8
1. The information submitted under Article 7 by each Party included in Annex I shall be
reviewed by expert review teams pursuant to the relevant decisions of the Conference of the
Parties and in accordance with guidelines adopted for this purpose by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol under paragraph 4 below.  The
information submitted under Article 7, paragraph 1, by each Party included in Annex I shall be
reviewed as part of the annual compilation and accounting of emissions inventories and assigned
amounts.  Additionally, the information submitted under Article 7, paragraph 2, by each Party
included in Annex I shall be reviewed as part of the review of communications.
2. Expert review teams shall be coordinated by the secretariat and shall be composed of
experts selected from those nominated by Parties to the Convention and, as appropriate, by
intergovernmental organizations, in accordance with guidance provided for this purpose by the
Conference of the Parties.
3. The review process shall provide a thorough and comprehensive technical assessment
of all aspects of the implementation by a Party of this Protocol.  The expert review teams shall
prepare a report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol, assessing the implementation of the commitments of the Party and identifying any
potential problems in, and factors influencing, the fulfilment of commitments.  Such reports
shall be circulated by the secretariat to all Parties to the Convention.  The secretariat shall list
those questions of implementation indicated in such reports for further consideration by the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall adopt at its first session, and review periodically thereafter, guidelines for the review
of implementation of this Protocol by expert review teams taking into account the relevant
decisions of the Conference of the Parties.
5. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall, with the assistance of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and, as appropriate, the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, consider:
 (a) The information submitted by Parties under Article 7 and the reports of the expert
reviews thereon conducted under this Article; and
 (b) Those questions of implementation listed by the secretariat under paragraph 3
above, as well as any questions raised by Parties.
6. Pursuant to its consideration of the information referred to in paragraph 5 above,
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall take
decisions on any matter required for the implementation of this Protocol. - 9 -
Article 9
1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall periodically review this Protocol in the light of the best available scientific information
and assessments on climate change and its impacts, as well as relevant technical, social and
economic information.  Such reviews shall be coordinated with pertinent reviews under
the Convention, in particular those required by Article 4, paragraph 2 (d), and Article 7,
paragraph 2 (a), of the Convention.  Based on these reviews, the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall take appropriate action.
2. The first review shall take place at the second session of the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.  Further reviews shall take place at regular
intervals and in a timely manner.
Article 10
 All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their
specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, without
introducing any new commitments for Parties not included in Annex I, but reaffirming existing
commitments under Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, and continuing to advance the
implementation of these commitments in order to achieve sustainable development, taking into
account Article 4, paragraphs 3, 5 and 7, of the Convention, shall:
 (a) Formulate, where relevant and to the extent possible, cost-effective national
and, where appropriate, regional programmes to improve the quality of local emission factors,
activity data and/or models which reflect the socio-economic conditions of each Party for the
preparation and periodic updating of national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources
and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, using
comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties, and consistent
with the guidelines for the preparation of national communications adopted by the Conference
of the Parties;
 (b) Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and, where
appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change and measures
to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change:
(i) Such programmes would, inter alia, concern the energy, transport and
industry sectors as well as agriculture, forestry and waste management.
Furthermore, adaptation technologies and methods for improving spatial
planning would improve adaptation to climate change; and
(ii) Parties included in Annex I shall submit information on action under this
Protocol, including national programmes, in accordance with Article 7;
and other Parties shall seek to include in their national communications,
as appropriate, information on programmes which contain measures that
the Party believes contribute to addressing climate change and its adverse
impacts, including the abatement of increases in greenhouse gas emissions,
and enhancement of and removals by sinks, capacity building and
adaptation measures; - 10 -
 (c) Cooperate in the promotion of effective modalities for the development,
application and diffusion of, and take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance,
as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies, know-how,
practices and processes pertinent to climate change, in particular to developing countries,
including the formulation of policies and programmes for the effective transfer of
environmentally sound technologies that are publicly owned or in the public domain and the
creation of an enabling environment for the private sector, to promote and enhance the transfer
of, and access to, environmentally sound technologies;
 (d) Cooperate in scientific and technical research and promote the maintenance and
the development of systematic observation systems and development of data archives to reduce
uncertainties related to the climate system, the adverse impacts of climate change and the
economic and social consequences of various response strategies, and promote the development
and strengthening of endogenous capacities and capabilities to participate in international and
intergovernmental efforts, programmes and networks on research and systematic observation,
taking into account Article 5 of the Convention;
 (e) Cooperate in and promote at the international level, and, where appropriate, using
existing bodies, the development and implementation of education and training programmes,
including the strengthening of national capacity building, in particular human and institutional
capacities and the exchange or secondment of personnel to train experts in this field, in particular
for developing countries, and facilitate at the national level public awareness of, and public
access to information on, climate change.  Suitable modalities should be developed to implement
these activities through the relevant bodies of the Convention, taking into account Article 6 of
the Convention;
 (f) Include in their national communications information on programmes and
activities undertaken pursuant to this Article in accordance with relevant decisions of the
Conference of the Parties; and
 (g) Give full consideration, in implementing the commitments under this Article,
to Article 4, paragraph 8, of the Convention.
Article 11
1. In the implementation of Article 10, Parties shall take into account the provisions of
Article 4, paragraphs 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9, of the Convention.
2. In the context of the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, in
accordance with the provisions of Article 4, paragraph 3, and Article 11 of the Convention,
and through the entity or entities entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism of the
Convention, the developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to
the Convention shall:
 (a) Provide new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs
incurred by developing country Parties in advancing the implementation of existing
commitments under Article 4, paragraph 1 (a), of the Convention that are covered in
Article 10, subparagraph (a); and - 11 -
 (b) Also provide such financial resources, including for the transfer of technology,
needed by the developing country Parties to meet the agreed full incremental costs of advancing
the implementation of existing commitments under Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention that
are covered by Article 10 and that are agreed between a developing country Party and the
international entity or entities referred to in Article 11 of the Convention, in accordance with
that Article.
The implementation of these existing commitments shall take into account the need for adequacy
and predictability in the flow of funds and the importance of appropriate burden sharing among
developed country Parties.  The guidance to the entity or entities entrusted with the operation of
the financial mechanism of the Convention in relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties,
including those agreed before the adoption of this Protocol, shall apply mutatis mutandis to the
provisions of this paragraph.
3. The developed country Parties and other developed Parties in Annex II to the
Convention may also provide, and developing country Parties avail themselves of, financial
resources for the implementation of Article 10, through bilateral, regional and other multilateral
channels.
Article 12
1. A clean development mechanism is hereby defined.
2. The purpose of the clean development mechanism shall be to assist Parties not included
in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective
of the Convention, and to assist Parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their
quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3.
3. Under the clean development mechanism:
 (a) Parties not included in Annex I will benefit from project activities resulting in
certified emission reductions; and
 (b) Parties included in Annex I may use the certified emission reductions accruing
from such project activities to contribute to compliance with part of their quantified emission
limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3, as determined by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
4. The clean development mechanism shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol and be supervised
by an executive board of the clean development mechanism.
5. Emission reductions resulting from each project activity shall be certified by operational
entities to be designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to
this Protocol, on the basis of:
 (a) Voluntary participation approved by each Party involved; - 12 -
 (b) Real, measurable, and long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate
change; and
 (c) Reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence
of the certified project activity.
6. The clean development mechanism shall assist in arranging funding of certified project
activities as necessary.
7. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall, at its first session, elaborate modalities and procedures with the objective of ensuring
transparency, efficiency and accountability through independent auditing and verification of
project activities.
8. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall
ensure that a share of the proceeds from certified project activities is used to cover administrative
expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the
adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
9. Participation under the clean development mechanism, including in activities mentioned
in paragraph 3 (a) above and in the acquisition of certified emission reductions, may involve
private and/or public entities, and is to be subject to whatever guidance may be provided by the
executive board of the clean development mechanism.
10. Certified emission reductions obtained during the period from the year 2000 up to the
beginning of the first commitment period can be used to assist in achieving compliance in the
first commitment period.
Article 13
1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the
meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Protocol may participate as observers
in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol.  When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties
to this Protocol, decisions under this Protocol shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this
Protocol.
3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol,
any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the
Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Protocol, shall be replaced by an additional
member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Protocol.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol
shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Protocol and shall make, within its
mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation.  It shall perform the
functions assigned to it by this Protocol and shall: - 13 -
 (a) Assess, on the basis of all information made available to it in accordance with the
provisions of this Protocol, the implementation of this Protocol by the Parties, the overall effects
of the measures taken pursuant to this Protocol, in particular environmental, economic and social
effects as well as their cumulative impacts and the extent to which progress towards the objective
of the Convention is being achieved;
 (b) Periodically examine the obligations of the Parties under this Protocol, giving due
consideration to any reviews required by Article 4, paragraph 2 (d), and Article 7, paragraph 2,
of the Convention, in the light of the objective of the Convention, the experience gained in its
implementation and the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge, and in this respect
consider and adopt regular reports on the implementation of this Protocol;
 (c) Promote and facilitate the exchange of information on measures adopted by the
Parties to address climate change and its effects, taking into account the differing circumstances,
responsibilities and capabilities of the Parties and their respective commitments under this
Protocol;
 (d) Facilitate, at the request of two or more Parties, the coordination of measures
adopted by them to address climate change and its effects, taking into account the differing
circumstances, responsibilities and capabilities of the Parties and their respective commitments
under this Protocol;
 (e) Promote and guide, in accordance with the objective of the Convention and
the provisions of this Protocol, and taking fully into account the relevant decisions by
the Conference of the Parties, the development and periodic refinement of comparable
methodologies for the effective implementation of this Protocol, to be agreed on by the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol;
 (f) Make recommendations on any matters necessary for the implementation of
this Protocol;
 (g) Seek to mobilize additional financial resources in accordance with Article 11,
paragraph 2;
 (h) Establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation
of this Protocol;
 (i) Seek and utilize, where appropriate, the services and cooperation of, and
information provided by, competent international organizations and intergovernmental and
non-governmental bodies; and
 (j) Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this
Protocol, and consider any assignment resulting from a decision by the Conference of the
Parties.
5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and financial procedures applied
under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Protocol, except as may be
otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol. - 14 -
6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to
this Protocol shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the
Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of the entry into force of this Protocol.
Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol shall be held every year and in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the
Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as
the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, or at the written
request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the
Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
8. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy
Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention,
may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol as observers.  Any body or agency, whether national or international,
governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Protocol
and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol as an observer,
may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object.  The admission and
participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure, as referred to in paragraph 5
above.
Article 14
1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat
of this Protocol.
2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and
Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention on arrangements made for the functioning of the
secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Protocol.  The secretariat shall, in addition,
exercise the functions assigned to it under this Protocol.
Article 15
1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body
for Implementation established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve as,
respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary
Body for Implementation of this Protocol.  The provisions relating to the functioning of these
two bodies under the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Protocol.  Sessions of the
meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary
Body for Implementation of this Protocol shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of,
respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary
Body for Implementation of the Convention. - 15 -
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Protocol may participate as observers
in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies.  When the subsidiary bodies serve as
the subsidiary bodies of this Protocol, decisions under this Protocol shall be taken only by those
that are Parties to this Protocol.
3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise
their functions with regard to matters concerning this Protocol, any member of the Bureaux of
those subsidiary bodies representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a party to
this Protocol, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the
Parties to this Protocol.
Article 16
 The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall,
as soon as practicable, consider the application to this Protocol of, and modify as appropriate,
the multilateral consultative process referred to in Article 13 of the Convention, in the light of
any relevant decisions that may be taken by the Conference of the Parties.  Any multilateral
consultative process that may be applied to this Protocol shall operate without prejudice to the
procedures and mechanisms established in accordance with Article 18.
Article 17
 The Conference of the Parties shall define the relevant principles, modalities, rules and
guidelines, in particular for verification, reporting and accountability for emissions trading.  The
Parties included in Annex B may participate in emissions trading for the purposes of fulfilling
their commitments under Article 3.  Any such trading shall be supplemental to domestic actions
for the purpose of meeting quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under that
Article.
Article 18
 The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall,
at its first session, approve appropriate and effective procedures and mechanisms to determine
and to address cases of non-compliance with the provisions of this Protocol, including through
the development of an indicative list of consequences, taking into account the cause, type, degree
and frequency of non-compliance.  Any procedures and mechanisms under this Article entailing
binding consequences shall be adopted by means of an amendment to this Protocol.
Article 19
 The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply
mutatis mutandis to this Protocol.
Article 20
1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Protocol.
2. Amendments to this Protocol shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference
of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.  The text of any proposed
amendment to this Protocol shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least - 16 -
six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption.  The secretariat shall also
communicate the text of any proposed amendments to the Parties and signatories to the
Convention and, for information, to the Depositary.
3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to
this Protocol by consensus.  If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement
reached, the amendment shall as a last resort be adopted by a three-fourths majority vote of the
Parties present and voting at the meeting.  The adopted amendment shall be communicated by
the secretariat to the Depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties for their acceptance.
4. Instruments of acceptance in respect of an amendment shall be deposited with the
Depositary.  An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 above shall enter into
force for those Parties having accepted it on the ninetieth day after the date of receipt by the
Depositary of an instrument of acceptance by at least three fourths of the Parties to this Protocol.
5. The amendment shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the
date on which that Party deposits with the Depositary its instrument of acceptance of the said
amendment.
Article 21
1. Annexes to this Protocol shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise
expressly provided, a reference to this Protocol constitutes at the same time a reference to
any annexes thereto.  Any annexes adopted after the entry into force of this Protocol shall be
restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific,
technical, procedural or administrative character.
2. Any Party may make proposals for an annex to this Protocol and may propose
amendments to annexes to this Protocol.
3. Annexes to this Protocol and amendments to annexes to this Protocol shall be adopted at
an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol.  The text of any proposed annex or amendment to an annex shall be communicated to
the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for
adoption.  The secretariat shall also communicate the text of any proposed annex or amendment
to an annex to the Parties and signatories to the Convention and, for information, to the
Depositary.
4. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed annex or
amendment to an annex by consensus.  If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no
agreement reached, the annex or amendment to an annex shall as a last resort be adopted by a
three-fourths majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting.  The adopted annex
or amendment to an annex shall be communicated by the secretariat to the Depositary, who shall
circulate it to all Parties for their acceptance.
5. An annex, or amendment to an annex other than Annex A or B, that has been adopted in
accordance with paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall enter into force for all Parties to this Protocol
six months after the date of the communication by the Depositary to such Parties of the adoption
of the annex or adoption of the amendment to the annex, except for those Parties that have - 17 -
notified the Depositary, in writing, within that period of their non-acceptance of the annex or
amendment to the annex.  The annex or amendment to an annex shall enter into force for Parties
which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which
withdrawal of such notification has been received by the Depositary.
6. If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to this
Protocol, that annex or amendment to an annex shall not enter into force until such time as the
amendment to this Protocol enters into force.
7. Amendments to Annexes A and B to this Protocol shall be adopted and enter into force
in accordance with the procedure set out in Article 20, provided that any amendment to Annex B
shall be adopted only with the written consent of the Party concerned.
Article 22
1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 below.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall
exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States
that are Parties to this Protocol.  Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any
of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.
Article 23
 The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Protocol.
Article 24
1. This Protocol shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or
approval by States and regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to the
Convention.  It shall be open for signature at United Nations Headquarters in New York from
16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999.  This Protocol shall be open for accession from the day after
the date on which it is closed for signature.  Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or
accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
2. Any regional economic integration organization which becomes a Party to this Protocol
without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this
Protocol.  In the case of such organizations, one or more of whose member States is a Party
to this Protocol, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective
responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Protocol.  In such cases, the
organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Protocol
concurrently.
3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic
integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters
governed by this Protocol.  These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in
turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence. - 18 -
Article 25
1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on which not less
than 55 Parties to the Convention, incorporating Parties included in Annex I which accounted in
total for at least 55 per cent of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the Parties included
in Annex I, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. For the purposes of this Article, “the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the
Parties included in Annex I” means the amount communicated on or before the date of adoption
of this Protocol by the Parties included in Annex I in their first national communications
submitted in accordance with Article 12 of the Convention.
3. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or
approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 above for
entry into force have been fulfilled, this Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day
following the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
4. For the purposes of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic
integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members
of the organization.
Article 26
 No reservations may be made to this Protocol.
Article 27
1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Protocol has entered into force
for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this Protocol by giving written notification to the
Depositary.
2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by
the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the
notification of withdrawal.
3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having
withdrawn from this Protocol.
Article 28
 The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian
and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
United Nations.
DONE at Kyoto this eleventh day of December one thousand nine hundred and
ninety-seven.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have
affixed their signatures to this Protocol on the dates indicated. - 19 -
Annex A
Greenhouse gases
Carbon dioxide (C02)
Methane (CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N20)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
Sectors/source categories
Energy
 Fuel combustion
  Energy industries
  Manufacturing industries and construction
  Transport
  Other sectors
    Other
 Fugitive emissions from fuels
  Solid fuels
  Oil and natural gas
    Other
Industrial processes
 Mineral products
 Chemical industry
 Metal production
 Other production
 Production of halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride
 Consumption of halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride
 Other
Solvent and other product use
Agriculture
 Enteric fermentation
 Manure management
 Rice cultivation
 Agricultural soils
 Prescribed burning of savannas
 Field burning of agricultural residues
 Other
Waste
 Solid waste disposal on land
 Wastewater handling
 Waste incineration
 Other - 20 -
Annex B
Party Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment
(percentage of base year or period)
Australia 108
Austria   92
Belgium   92
Bulgaria*   92
Canada   94
Croatia*   95
Czech Republic*   92
Denmark   92
Estonia*   92
European Community   92
Finland   92
France   92
Germany   92
Greece   92
Hungary*   94
Iceland 110
Ireland   92
Italy   92
Japan   94
Latvia*   92
Liechtenstein   92
Lithuania*   92
Luxembourg   92
Monaco   92
Netherlands   92
New Zealand 100
Norway 101
Poland*   94
Portugal   92
Romania*   92
Russian Federation* 100
Slovakia*   92
Slovenia*   92
Spain   92
Sweden   92
Switzerland   92
Ukraine* 100
United Kingdom of Great
  Britain and Northern Ireland
  92
United States of America   93
     
*  Countries that are undergoing the process of transition to a market

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